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2012年10月14日 (日)

PE Day 5: Nuclear waste management part 2

Secular equilibrium: Ax = Ay
Radiation units:
Exposure [Roentgen, R] X-, gamma ray
Absorbed Dose [Gray, Gy or Rad] 1 Rad = 100 ergs/gram, 1 Gray = 1 J/kg = 100 Rads
Equivalent Dose [Sievert, Sv or Rem] Absorbed dose * Quality factor
1 Rem = 1 Rad * QF
1 Sievert = 1 Gray * QF
QF = 1 for x-, gamma-ray, QF = 10 for Alpha, QF = 2-10 for neutron depending on neutron energy

TRU: Transuranic Waste (z>92), by-products of fuel assembly
Mill tailings: Residue from physical and chemical processing of uranium ore, main concern is radon-222

LLW from NPP: C14 from the activation of N14 in reactor coolant, H3 from boron, Fe55, Co60, Ni59, Ni63, Tc00 from cooling system corrosion products

US government is responsible for final disposal of spent fuel discharged from US commercial NPPs. The utilities are responsible for paying 1 mill per kWh to cover final disposal. (1 mill = 1/1000 dollar)

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